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website-kan gobanimo.tripod.com oo aad ka helayso waxbarasho gaar ah oo qoran gaar ahaan dugsiga sare waxaanu kugu war galinaynaa inaad aad dadka saaxiibadaa ah na aad u sheegto website-kan aad ka heshay waxbrashada.
 maanta waxaanu idiinku haynaa waxyaabo ku saabsab mawliidka rasuukla (scs)

Waxaa masaajidka jaamaca ah isugu soo galay sheekh Faarax iyo sheekh Bashiir. Labada sheekh oo ilaa yaraantoodi isku xer ahaan jirey, muddo dheerna saaxiibbo ahaa waxaa si lama filaan ah uga dhex bilaabatay dood ku saabsan MOWLIIDKA [Dhalashadii Rasuulka sallallaahu caleyhi wasallam] ma bannaantahay in loo dabbaal dego mise ma bannaana oo waa bidco?

Labada sheekh mid walbaa wuxuu soo daliishanayaa wixii uu u arko in ay mowqifkiisa xoojinayaan, waxayse layaab ku leeyihiin in uu midba kan kale si qaddarin iyo xaq raadis ah u dhagaysanayo, waxaase ka sii daran in ay ugu danbayntii is waafaqeen.

Waxba yaanan hadal kugu daaline, doodan akhri deetana u garsoor labada sheekh:- 

Sheekh Bashiir: salaama caleykum

Sheekh Faarax: wacaleykumu salaam, sheekh Bashiir see la yahay.

Sh. Bashiir: Ilaahay mahaddiis, maalmahan kuma arkine miyaad maqnayd?

Sh. Faarax: Mayee waxaan ku mashquulsanayn diyaarinta xafladdii Mowliidka Nabiga (scw).

Sh. Bashiir: Oo sheekh miyaadan weli fahmin in Xafladda Mowliidku bidco tahay?

Sh. Faarax: Maxaad ku hadlaysaa?! Ma Xafladda Mowliidka Nabiga (scw) baad bidco ku sheegaysaa? Waxayba ka mid tahay cibaadooyinka kuwa ugu fadli badane? Waaba wax Ilaahay loogu dhawaadee? Waaba jacaylkii Suubanehee? Sidee u leedahay waa bidco? Tanna waa lagaa sugayey! Anigu waa horaan arkay in balaayo kuu gacan haadinayso.

Sh. Bashiir: Faarax! Balaayo iima gacan haadine aan xaqa kuu caddeeyo.

Sh. Faarax: Oo sideeda maxaad xaq u taqaan?

Sh. Bashiir: Xaq waxaan u aqaan wixii Quraanka iyo Xadiiska iyo Camalkii Salafka waafaqsan. Adigu miyaadan sidaas u aqoon?

Sh. Faarax: Mayee anna sidaas aad sheegtay baan u aqaan! Laakiin I dhageyso: waxaas aad ku hadashay yaan cid kale kaa maqlin, ma dhalashadii Rasuulka (scw) baad bidco ku sheegaysaa? Waaba yaabe!

Sh. Bashiir: U kaadi sheekh Faarax, Nabiga (scw) dhalashadiisu bidco ma ahan ee waxaa bidco ah in maalintaas laga dhigto CIID ama loo dabbaal-dego ama loo arko inay maalmaha ka fadli badantahay iyo in cibaado gooni ah lagu gaar yeelo.

Sh. Faarax: oo maxaa kuugu daliil ah inay bidco tahay? Xujo ma u haysataa?

Sh. Bashiir: Waa khalad in aad aniga daliil I waydiisid. Adiga ayaa lagaa rabaa daliilka aad ku jidaysey cibaado aan Ilaahay quraanka ku jideyn, hal xadiisa oo kaliyana aanu ku soo aroorin, saxaabadii Rasuulkuna (scw) aanay samayn. Adaa sheegay inay cibaado iyo sunne tahaye ee keen daliilka {al bayinatu calal muddacii} adaa daliil lagaa sugayaa. Sideedana qaacido ayaa jirta: Qofkii wax cibaado ah sheega isagaa daliil laga rabaa

Sh. Faarax: Anigu daliilkayga gadaal baan ka sheegi doonaaye waa in aad caddaysid arrimahaas aad sheegtay? Caddee sababta aad ku diideysid.

Sh. Bashiir: waayahay, dhagahaaga si fiican u fur, waxa aan ku diidayna dhageyso:-

In maalintii uu Nabigu (scw) dhashay loo dabbaal dego waa wax bidco ah, oo aan Kitaabka iyo Sunnada iyo Ijmaaca toona waafaqsanayn waxaana soo derriyey dad aan culimo ahayn. Waxaana arrintaas kuugu caddaynayaa arrimahan soo socda.

Sh. Faarax: Soo daa, waan ka jawaabayaa waxan aad dhoob-dhoobayside.

Sh. Bashiir: adaa jawaabtooda lagaa sugayaa:

  1. Horta Nabigu (scw) ma dhigin mowliidka mana sheegin, saxaabadiisana ma aanu amrin, haddee diintana isagaa ina soo gaarsiiyey. Ma runbaa mise waa been.

Sh. Faarax: mayee waa run.

Sh. Bashiir: bal u fiirso:

  1. Khulafadii Rasuulku (scw) ma aanay dhigin mowliidka haddee iyagaana Xabiibka naga jeclaa, diintiisana ugu raacid badnaa. Saxaabada oo dhanna waa sidaas oo kale.
  2. Nabigu (scw) wuxuu ina amray inaynu sunnadiisa raacno, wuxuuna inooga digey waxyaabaha diinta lagu soo siyaadinayo, iyadoo khayr lagu doonayo. Xadiiskii Imaamu Muslim waatii Nabigu (scw) uu lahaa:

 ( أما بعد فإن خير الحديث كتاب الله وخير الهدي هدي محمد وشر الأمور محدثاتها وكل محدثة بدعة وكل بدعة ضلالة) اخرجه مسلم وفى رواية للنسائي( وكل ضلالة فى النار)

Macne{hadal waxaa ugu wanaagsan kitaabka Ilaahay, jid iyo waddo lagu socdana waxa ugu wanaagsan tii Nabi Muxammed (scw) arrimaha oo dhanna waxaa ugu xun kuwa lagu soo daro [diinta], wax walba oo lagu soo darana waa bidco, bidco oo dhanna waa baadinimo}

Sow ma cadda inaan diinta waxba lagu soo dari karin?

    • Xadiiskii kale ee xataa Arbaciinka Nawawi (an) ku yaalley ee Cirbaad bin Saariyah, sow sheekh ma xusuusatid? Ee uu Nabigu (scw) ku lahaa qofkii sii noolaada wuxuu arkayaa khilaaf fara badan ee sunnadayda iyo tan khulafadayda gawska danbe ku qabsada, deetana uu yidhi: {waxaan idiinka digayaa arrimaha gadaal laga keeni doono, wixii gadaal laga keenaa waa bidco, bidcana dhammaanteed waa baadinimo} bal fiiri “kulla muxdathatin” haddee erayga “kulli” macnihiisa cidi kuu sheegimayso:

 (وإياكم ومحدثات الأمور؛ فإن كل محدثة بدعة، وكل بدعة ضلالة)

            Maxaad adigu mowliidka bidcooyinkaas la diidey kaga soo reebaysaa?

Sh. Faarax: Ma dhammaysatay?

Sh. Bashiir: Mayee ha I boobsiine sug:

  1. Nabigu (scw) wuxuu ummaddiisa faray wixii khayr ah oo dhan, wuxuuna ka reebay wixii shar ah. Miyaad haddaba, sheekh Faarax, weligaa aragtay hal xadiisana ha ahaadee meel uu Nabigu (scw) ku amrayo mowliidka, ama isagoo samaynaya, ama saxaabadiisa oo xafladdan dhigaya?

Sh. Faarax: Maya ma arkin mana jiro xadiis sheegaya in Nabigu (scw) amray ama dhigay Mowliidka.

Sh. Bashiir: Waayahay bal u fiirso! Miyuu Nabigu illaaway inuu inoo sheego ama inoo jideeyo Mowliidka? Mise kharka ku jira [haddii khayr ku jiro] ayuu ka kaaftoomay oo innaga ayaa ka khayr jecel? Mise innagaa Nabiga (scw) diintiisa uga fahan badan? Mise wuu sheegay oo saxaabada ayaan inoo soo gudbin? Arrimahaas midkii aad tiraahdaba waa khalad iyo gaf. Waana wax ay ku khasban yihiin inay mid ka mid ah doortaan kuwa u ololeeya xafladda mowliidka.

Sow ma ogid in Nabigu (scw) uu noolaa 23 sano oo uu Nabi Rasuul ah ahaa, muxuu hal sanana kulay ku ahaato u xusi waayey dhalshadiisa? Oo saxaabadu iyaguna ma hilmaameen dhalashadii xabiibkooda?

Haddii Nabiga iyo saxaabadiisuba ay ka tageen oo iska daayeen innagana waxaa inala gudboon in aynu iska deyno, ee ma ahan inaynu gacan dhaafno.

  1. Gaalada gaar ahaanna Kiristaanka ayaa lagu yaqaan inay xusaan dhalashad dadkooda waaweyn, sidaas darteed bay u xusaan waxa ay ku sheegaan (Miilaad Al masiix) oo ay leeyihiin waa maalintii uu dhashay Nabi Ciise (cs) waana caado ay waligood lahaan jireen. Iyaga ayaana lagaga dayday.
  2. Teeda kale, waxaan sheekh ku waydiiyey ma taqaan ciddii ugu horreysey ee Mowliidka dhigtay ama bilowday?

Sh. Faarax: haddee waxay ila tahay in waligood muslimiintu dhigi jireen, si saxase uma xusuusto qofkii ugu horreeyey ee dhiga. 

Sh. Bashiir: sida ay caddeeyeen culimada taariikhdu, oo uu ka mid yahay Al-imaam Al-maqriizii kitaabkiisa “Al-khudad wal aathaar” 1/490, iyo Muftigii hore ee Masar Muxammad Bakhiit Al-mudiicii kitaabkiisa “Axsanul Kalaam” iyo culimo kalaba waxay caddeeyeen in Mowliidka ay bilaabeen nimankii Masar xukumi jirey qarnigii 4-aad ee hijriga, ee lagu magacaabi jirey “Al-faatimiyiin”

Sh. Faarax: Ma “Faatimiyiintii” baad leedahay iyagaa bilaabay mowliidka? Nimankaas waxayba culimada islaamku sheegeen inaanay mulimba ahayne! Waxay ahaayeen firqada loo yaqaan “Baatiniyah” oo aan soon iyo salaad iyo xaj toona aaminsanayn! Waxay ku gabbanayeen magaca gabadhii Nabiga (scw) ee Faatimah. Xataa Imaamu Suyuudi kuma darin kitaabkiisa “Taariikhul Khulafaa” oo uu kaga hadlayey dhammaan madaxdii islaamka, wuxuuna sheegay inuu kas uga booday oo aanu ku tirineyn inay muslimiin yihiin.

Sh. Bashiir: Haa, sida taariikhda lagu hayo ciddii ugu horreysey ee mowliid dhigta iyaga ayay ahayd, waliba ninkii la odhan jirey “Al-Muciz Lidiinillaah”. Laakiin muslimiinta kuma dhex faafin. Waagii danbe ayaa waxaa faafiyey Boqorkii “IRBIL” ee Abu Saciid Al-Kuukbuuri, dhammaadkii qarnigii 6aad ama bilowgii kii 7aad.

    • Boqorkan Abu Saciid wuxuu arkay sidii ay Kiristaanku u waynaynayaan uguna dabbaal degayaan dhalashadii Nabigooda, markaas ayuu ka masayray oo yidhi: waa inaynu innaguna Nabigeenna sidaas oo kale u qaddarinno!
    • Haddaba boqorka iyo dadkii ka yeelayba way ku gar leeyihiin in ay Suubanaha qaddariyaan laakiin waxay hilmaameen saddex arrimood:

                              i.      In Nabiga (scw) waynayntiisu ay tahay in la raaco, la rumeeyo, diintiisa la difaaco, sunnadiisa la faafiyo, lagu salliyo lana jeclaado. Ee aanay ahayn in wax aanu jideyn la sameeyo.

                             ii.      Waxay kaloo illaaween in diinteennu ay tahay kaamil buuxda oo aan waxba lagu siyaadin karin, innaga dowrkeenuna yahay inaynu raacno (ittibaac) ee aysan ahayn inaynu wax cusub la nimaadno (ibtidaac).

                             iii.      Tan kale ee ay garab mareen ayaa ahayd in Ilaahay (sw) iyo Nabigiisuba ay na amreen inaynaan ku dayan gaalada, oo aynu khilaafno.

o       Xataa haddii niyaddiisu wanaagsanayd dee niyad wanaagsan diin laguma jideeyo.

  1. Nabiga (scw) jacaylkiisu waa waajib, qofkuna muslim ma noqonayo ilaa uu jeclaado, hase yeeshee waa su’aale labo nin keebaa Nabiga (scw) jecel:

                              i.      Nin sannadka oo dhan iska mashquulsan oo aan sunnada Rasuulka (scw) ku dhaqmin, laakiin habeenka 12 Rabiicul awal yimaada xafladda mowliidka, xafladdaas oo ragga iyo dumarku is dhex boodayaan, gabdhaha iyo wiilashuna iska doontaan, durbaanka iyo qasiidooyinku cibaado ka yihiin, fooxa iyo sigaarka isku qasmaan.....

                              ii.      Mise nin jecel inuu sannadka oo dhan nabiga xusuusnaado, sunnadii Rasuulku (scw) ay korkiisa ka muuqato, barta oo ku camal-fala axaadiista Rasuulka (scw), mar walba xasuusan oo ku salliya. Laakiin aan jeclayn in uu tago meeshaas ay mowliidka ku dhigayaan oo masaa’ibtu ka dhacdo, aanna doonayn inuu sameeyo wax aanu Rasuulku (scw) iyo Raggiisii toona samaynin, Afartii Imaam iyo culumadii xaddiiskuna aanay samayn? Kee sunnada u dhow? 

Haddaan si kale u dhigo Imaam Bukhaari, Muslim, Abu Da’uud, Shaafici, Axmed, Abu Xaniifah, Maalik iyo raggoodii oo dhinac ah iyo Faadimiyiintii mowliidka dejiyey oo dhinaca kale ah keebaa Nabiga (scw) jeclaa? 

Sh. Faarax: Waa iska cadyahay kan sunnada u dhow, ama Rasuulka jeclel, waana runtaa oo sababta Bukhaari iyo Shaafici mowliidka uga tageen waa arrin fiira mudan, lakiin …

Sh. Bashiir: Haa, iyagaa Nabiga naga wada jeclaa…

Sh. Faarax: Sheekhow axaadiis badan baad soo warisey, wixii aanu waligayo soo samaynaynayna waxaad rabtaa inaad bidco ku sheegtid. Haddaba anna I dhageyso aan kuu sheego xujooyinka cadcad iyo daliilka aanu u haysanno mowliidka.

Sh. Bashiir: Haye bal soo daa waxa aad haysid. Maxaadse ka yeelaysaa wixii aan daliil soo akhriyey. Miyaad inkiraysaa mise?

 Sh. Faarax: Mayee waan ka jawaabayaa.

Sh. Bashiir: oo ma jawaab baad u haysaa?

Sh. Faarax: Adaa arki doona? 

Waxaa masaajidka jaamaca ah isugu soo galay sheekh Faarax iyo sheekh Bashiir. Labada sheekh oo ilaa yaraantoodi isku xer ahaan jirey, muddo dheerna saaxiibbo ahaa waxaa si lama filaan ah uga dhex bilaabatay dood ku saabsan MOWLIIDKA [Dhalashadii Rasuulka sallallaahu caleyhi wasallam] ma bannaantahay in loo dabbaal dego mise ma bannaana oo waa bidco?

Labada sheekh mid walbaa wuxuu soo daliishanayaa wixii uu u arko in ay mowqifkiisa xoojinayaan, waxayse layaab ku leeyihiin in uu midba kan kale si qaddarin iyo xaq raadis ah u dhagaysanayo, waxaase ka sii daran in ay ugu danbayntii is waafaqeen.

Waxba yaanan hadal kugu daaline, doodan akhri deetana u garsoor labada sheekh:- 

Sheekh Bashiir: salaama caleykum

Sheekh Faarax: wacaleykumu salaam, sheekh Bashiir see la yahay.

Sh. Bashiir: Ilaahay mahaddiis, maalmahan kuma arkine miyaad maqnayd?

Sh. Faarax: Mayee waxaan ku mashquulsanayn diyaarinta xafladdii Mowliidka Nabiga (scw).

Sh. Bashiir: Oo sheekh miyaadan weli fahmin in Xafladda Mowliidku bidco tahay?

Sh. Faarax: Maxaad ku hadlaysaa?! Ma Xafladda Mowliidka Nabiga (scw) baad bidco ku sheegaysaa? Waxayba ka mid tahay cibaadooyinka kuwa ugu fadli badane? Waaba wax Ilaahay loogu dhawaadee? Waaba jacaylkii Suubanehee? Sidee u leedahay waa bidco? Tanna waa lagaa sugayey! Anigu waa horaan arkay in balaayo kuu gacan haadinayso.

Sh. Bashiir: Faarax! Balaayo iima gacan haadine aan xaqa kuu caddeeyo.

Sh. Faarax: Oo sideeda maxaad xaq u taqaan?

Sh. Bashiir: Xaq waxaan u aqaan wixii Quraanka iyo Xadiiska iyo Camalkii Salafka waafaqsan. Adigu miyaadan sidaas u aqoon?

Sh. Faarax: Mayee anna sidaas aad sheegtay baan u aqaan! Laakiin I dhageyso: waxaas aad ku hadashay yaan cid kale kaa maqlin, ma dhalashadii Rasuulka (scw) baad bidco ku sheegaysaa? Waaba yaabe!

Sh. Bashiir: U kaadi sheekh Faarax, Nabiga (scw) dhalashadiisu bidco ma ahan ee waxaa bidco ah in maalintaas laga dhigto CIID ama loo dabbaal-dego ama loo arko inay maalmaha ka fadli badantahay iyo in cibaado gooni ah lagu gaar yeelo.

Sh. Faarax: oo maxaa kuugu daliil ah inay bidco tahay? Xujo ma u haysataa?

Sh. Bashiir: Waa khalad in aad aniga daliil I waydiisid. Adiga ayaa lagaa rabaa daliilka aad ku jidaysey cibaado aan Ilaahay quraanka ku jideyn, hal xadiisa oo kaliyana aanu ku soo aroorin, saxaabadii Rasuulkuna (scw) aanay samayn. Adaa sheegay inay cibaado iyo sunne tahaye ee keen daliilka {al bayinatu calal muddacii} adaa daliil lagaa sugayaa. Sideedana qaacido ayaa jirta: Qofkii wax cibaado ah sheega isagaa daliil laga rabaa

Sh. Faarax: Anigu daliilkayga gadaal baan ka sheegi doonaaye waa in aad caddaysid arrimahaas aad sheegtay? Caddee sababta aad ku diideysid.

Sh. Bashiir: waayahay, dhagahaaga si fiican u fur, waxa aan ku diidayna dhageyso:-

In maalintii uu Nabigu (scw) dhashay loo dabbaal dego waa wax bidco ah, oo aan Kitaabka iyo Sunnada iyo Ijmaaca toona waafaqsanayn waxaana soo derriyey dad aan culimo ahayn. Waxaana arrintaas kuugu caddaynayaa arrimahan soo socda.

Sh. Faarax: Soo daa, waan ka jawaabayaa waxan aad dhoob-dhoobayside.

Sh. Bashiir: adaa jawaabtooda lagaa sugayaa:

  1. Horta Nabigu (scw) ma dhigin mowliidka mana sheegin, saxaabadiisana ma aanu amrin, haddee diintana isagaa ina soo gaarsiiyey. Ma runbaa mise waa been.

Sh. Faarax: mayee waa run.

Sh. Bashiir: bal u fiirso:

  1. Khulafadii Rasuulku (scw) ma aanay dhigin mowliidka haddee iyagaana Xabiibka naga jeclaa, diintiisana ugu raacid badnaa. Saxaabada oo dhanna waa sidaas oo kale.
  2. Nabigu (scw) wuxuu ina amray inaynu sunnadiisa raacno, wuxuuna inooga digey waxyaabaha diinta lagu soo siyaadinayo, iyadoo khayr lagu doonayo. Xadiiskii Imaamu Muslim waatii Nabigu (scw) uu lahaa:

 ( أما بعد فإن خير الحديث كتاب الله وخير الهدي هدي محمد وشر الأمور محدثاتها وكل محدثة بدعة وكل بدعة ضلالة) اخرجه مسلم وفى رواية للنسائي( وكل ضلالة فى النار)

Macne{hadal waxaa ugu wanaagsan kitaabka Ilaahay, jid iyo waddo lagu socdana waxa ugu wanaagsan tii Nabi Muxammed (scw) arrimaha oo dhanna waxaa ugu xun kuwa lagu soo daro [diinta], wax walba oo lagu soo darana waa bidco, bidco oo dhanna waa baadinimo}

Sow ma cadda inaan diinta waxba lagu soo dari karin?

    • Xadiiskii kale ee xataa Arbaciinka Nawawi (an) ku yaalley ee Cirbaad bin Saariyah, sow sheekh ma xusuusatid? Ee uu Nabigu (scw) ku lahaa qofkii sii noolaada wuxuu arkayaa khilaaf fara badan ee sunnadayda iyo tan khulafadayda gawska danbe ku qabsada, deetana uu yidhi: {waxaan idiinka digayaa arrimaha gadaal laga keeni doono, wixii gadaal laga keenaa waa bidco, bidcana dhammaanteed waa baadinimo} bal fiiri “kulla muxdathatin” haddee erayga “kulli” macnihiisa cidi kuu sheegimayso:

 (وإياكم ومحدثات الأمور؛ فإن كل محدثة بدعة، وكل بدعة ضلالة)

            Maxaad adigu mowliidka bidcooyinkaas la diidey kaga soo reebaysaa?

Sh. Faarax: Ma dhammaysatay?

Sh. Bashiir: Mayee ha I boobsiine sug:

  1. Nabigu (scw) wuxuu ummaddiisa faray wixii khayr ah oo dhan, wuxuuna ka reebay wixii shar ah. Miyaad haddaba, sheekh Faarax, weligaa aragtay hal xadiisana ha ahaadee meel uu Nabigu (scw) ku amrayo mowliidka, ama isagoo samaynaya, ama saxaabadiisa oo xafladdan dhigaya?

Sh. Faarax: Maya ma arkin mana jiro xadiis sheegaya in Nabigu (scw) amray ama dhigay Mowliidka.

Sh. Bashiir: Waayahay bal u fiirso! Miyuu Nabigu illaaway inuu inoo sheego ama inoo jideeyo Mowliidka? Mise kharka ku jira [haddii khayr ku jiro] ayuu ka kaaftoomay oo innaga ayaa ka khayr jecel? Mise innagaa Nabiga (scw) diintiisa uga fahan badan? Mise wuu sheegay oo saxaabada ayaan inoo soo gudbin? Arrimahaas midkii aad tiraahdaba waa khalad iyo gaf. Waana wax ay ku khasban yihiin inay mid ka mid ah doortaan kuwa u ololeeya xafladda mowliidka.

Sow ma ogid in Nabigu (scw) uu noolaa 23 sano oo uu Nabi Rasuul ah ahaa, muxuu hal sanana kulay ku ahaato u xusi waayey dhalshadiisa? Oo saxaabadu iyaguna ma hilmaameen dhalashadii xabiibkooda?

Haddii Nabiga iyo saxaabadiisuba ay ka tageen oo iska daayeen innagana waxaa inala gudboon in aynu iska deyno, ee ma ahan inaynu gacan dhaafno.

  1. Gaalada gaar ahaanna Kiristaanka ayaa lagu yaqaan inay xusaan dhalashad dadkooda waaweyn, sidaas darteed bay u xusaan waxa ay ku sheegaan (Miilaad Al masiix) oo ay leeyihiin waa maalintii uu dhashay Nabi Ciise (cs) waana caado ay waligood lahaan jireen. Iyaga ayaana lagaga dayday.
  2. Teeda kale, waxaan sheekh ku waydiiyey ma taqaan ciddii ugu horreysey ee Mowliidka dhigtay ama bilowday?

Sh. Faarax: haddee waxay ila tahay in waligood muslimiintu dhigi jireen, si saxase uma xusuusto qofkii ugu horreeyey ee dhiga. 

Sh. Bashiir: sida ay caddeeyeen culimada taariikhdu, oo uu ka mid yahay Al-imaam Al-maqriizii kitaabkiisa “Al-khudad wal aathaar” 1/490, iyo Muftigii hore ee Masar Muxammad Bakhiit Al-mudiicii kitaabkiisa “Axsanul Kalaam” iyo culimo kalaba waxay caddeeyeen in Mowliidka ay bilaabeen nimankii Masar xukumi jirey qarnigii 4-aad ee hijriga, ee lagu magacaabi jirey “Al-faatimiyiin”

Sh. Faarax: Ma “Faatimiyiintii” baad leedahay iyagaa bilaabay mowliidka? Nimankaas waxayba culimada islaamku sheegeen inaanay mulimba ahayne! Waxay ahaayeen firqada loo yaqaan “Baatiniyah” oo aan soon iyo salaad iyo xaj toona aaminsanayn! Waxay ku gabbanayeen magaca gabadhii Nabiga (scw) ee Faatimah. Xataa Imaamu Suyuudi kuma darin kitaabkiisa “Taariikhul Khulafaa” oo uu kaga hadlayey dhammaan madaxdii islaamka, wuxuuna sheegay inuu kas uga booday oo aanu ku tirineyn inay muslimiin yihiin.

Sh. Bashiir: Haa, sida taariikhda lagu hayo ciddii ugu horreysey ee mowliid dhigta iyaga ayay ahayd, waliba ninkii la odhan jirey “Al-Muciz Lidiinillaah”. Laakiin muslimiinta kuma dhex faafin. Waagii danbe ayaa waxaa faafiyey Boqorkii “IRBIL” ee Abu Saciid Al-Kuukbuuri, dhammaadkii qarnigii 6aad ama bilowgii kii 7aad.

    • Boqorkan Abu Saciid wuxuu arkay sidii ay Kiristaanku u waynaynayaan uguna dabbaal degayaan dhalashadii Nabigooda, markaas ayuu ka masayray oo yidhi: waa inaynu innaguna Nabigeenna sidaas oo kale u qaddarinno!
    • Haddaba boqorka iyo dadkii ka yeelayba way ku gar leeyihiin in ay Suubanaha qaddariyaan laakiin waxay hilmaameen saddex arrimood:

                              i.      In Nabiga (scw) waynayntiisu ay tahay in la raaco, la rumeeyo, diintiisa la difaaco, sunnadiisa la faafiyo, lagu salliyo lana jeclaado. Ee aanay ahayn in wax aanu jideyn la sameeyo.

                             ii.      Waxay kaloo illaaween in diinteennu ay tahay kaamil buuxda oo aan waxba lagu siyaadin karin, innaga dowrkeenuna yahay inaynu raacno (ittibaac) ee aysan ahayn inaynu wax cusub la nimaadno (ibtidaac).

                             iii.      Tan kale ee ay garab mareen ayaa ahayd in Ilaahay (sw) iyo Nabigiisuba ay na amreen inaynaan ku dayan gaalada, oo aynu khilaafno.

o       Xataa haddii niyaddiisu wanaagsanayd dee niyad wanaagsan diin laguma jideeyo.

  1. Nabiga (scw) jacaylkiisu waa waajib, qofkuna muslim ma noqonayo ilaa uu jeclaado, hase yeeshee waa su’aale labo nin keebaa Nabiga (scw) jecel:

                              i.      Nin sannadka oo dhan iska mashquulsan oo aan sunnada Rasuulka (scw) ku dhaqmin, laakiin habeenka 12 Rabiicul awal yimaada xafladda mowliidka, xafladdaas oo ragga iyo dumarku is dhex boodayaan, gabdhaha iyo wiilashuna iska doontaan, durbaanka iyo qasiidooyinku cibaado ka yihiin, fooxa iyo sigaarka isku qasmaan.....

                              ii.      Mise nin jecel inuu sannadka oo dhan nabiga xusuusnaado, sunnadii Rasuulku (scw) ay korkiisa ka muuqato, barta oo ku camal-fala axaadiista Rasuulka (scw), mar walba xasuusan oo ku salliya. Laakiin aan jeclayn in uu tago meeshaas ay mowliidka ku dhigayaan oo masaa’ibtu ka dhacdo, aanna doonayn inuu sameeyo wax aanu Rasuulku (scw) iyo Raggiisii toona samaynin, Afartii Imaam iyo culumadii xaddiiskuna aanay samayn? Kee sunnada u dhow? 

Haddaan si kale u dhigo Imaam Bukhaari, Muslim, Abu Da’uud, Shaafici, Axmed, Abu Xaniifah, Maalik iyo raggoodii oo dhinac ah iyo Faadimiyiintii mowliidka dejiyey oo dhinaca kale ah keebaa Nabiga (scw) jeclaa? 

Sh. Faarax: Waa iska cadyahay kan sunnada u dhow, ama Rasuulka jeclel, waana runtaa oo sababta Bukhaari iyo Shaafici mowliidka uga tageen waa arrin fiira mudan, lakiin …

Sh. Bashiir: Haa, iyagaa Nabiga naga wada jeclaa…

Sh. Faarax: Sheekhow axaadiis badan baad soo warisey, wixii aanu waligayo soo samaynaynayna waxaad rabtaa inaad bidco ku sheegtid. Haddaba anna I dhageyso aan kuu sheego xujooyinka cadcad iyo daliilka aanu u haysanno mowliidka.

Sh. Bashiir: Haye bal soo daa waxa aad haysid. Maxaadse ka yeelaysaa wixii aan daliil soo akhriyey. Miyaad inkiraysaa mise?

 Sh. Faarax: Mayee waan ka jawaabayaa.

Sh. Bashiir: oo ma jawaab baad u haysaa?

Sh. Faarax: Adaa arki doona? 

waxaanu idinka raali galinaynaa in aanu wali wadno howshii website-kan. markaa hadaad waxbarashadii horey laguugusoo sheegay aad ka waydo raali ahow website-ka oo shaqo kasoco awgeed.
 
       qaybtii aanu idiinku tala galnay maanta ee historyga ahayd waatan ee sidaa ula soco
     Ahzab the confederates

Diverse enemies of tribes allied against Islam. They were the pagan quraish, the Jewish tribe of Banu-Nadir, the Jewish tribe of banu Quraiza in medina, and the Qadafan tribe of Bedouin Arabs. Qadafan was from the interior. The Jewish banu-Nadir had been already expelled from medina for their treachery. They all unified to surround and annihilate the Muslim community in medina.

They began to make a network of alliances. Then, besieged medina with a force of 10,000 men in the months of shauwal and zul-qa'd A.H.5 (A.D.627). This siege of the unholy confederates lasted over two weeks. Some accounts give 27 days. It caused much suffering from hunger, cold, and unceasing shower of arrows. And there were constant general or concentrated assaults. It was well-organized and formidable attack, but the Muslims had made preparations to meet it. One of the preparations, they took the enemy by surprise, was the trench (khandaq). It was dug round medina by the prophet's order and under the supervision of Salmon Al-farsi (the Persian). But though the unholy confederates caused a great deal of anxiety and suffering to the Muslims, Islam came triumphantly out of the trial and got more firmly established than ever.

The Jewish tribe of medina rallied with the confederates, breaking the treaty they entered with the Muslims. The latter sensed the critical situation, luckily, a cold, piercing hurricane wind rose, smashing fires, tents, and killed the animals of the confederate's army. And son their object frustrated. After their evacuation the Muslims killed the Jews of medina for their treachery.

                                  The treaty of judda ibiya  

Huddaibiya is a plain, a short day's march to the north of Mecca, a little to the west of the medina-Mecca road, as used in the prophet's time. Six years had elapsed since the prophet (peace be upon him) left his beloved city. And it had been in the hands of the pagan auto crackly. By Arab custom, every Arab was entitled to visit the sacred enclosure unarmed. Fatherly, fighting of any pilgrimage kind was prohibited during the sacred months which included the month of zul-qa'd. In A.H.6 (A.D.628), therefore, the prophet desired to perform the Umra or lesser pilgrimage, but with his followers. A large following joined him to the number of fourteen to fifteen hundred. 

But the pagan autocracy was alarmed and prepared to prevent the peaceful party from performing the peaceful rites of pilgrimage. They marched out to fight. The prophet turned a little to the west of the road and encamped at huddaibiya. There negotiations took place. Quraish pagans had learnt, by six years experience that their power was crumbling on all sides slam was growing with its moral and spiritual forces. A peaceful treaty was therefore concluded, known as the treaty of huddaibiya. It stipulated:

1.       That there was to be peace between the parties for ten years

2.       That any tribe or person was free to join either party or make an alliance with it

3.       That if a Quraish person from Mecca, under the guardianship of a meccans should join the prophet without the guardian's permission, he (or she) should be sent back to the guardian, but, in the contrary case, they should not be sent back.

4.       That the prophet and his party were not to enter Mecca that year, but that they could enter unarmed in the following year.

 The Muslims faithfully observed the terms of the treaty. The following year (A.D. 629/ A.H. 7), they performed the lesser pilgrimage in great state for three days.

 

                 Fat'hu Mecca (Taking of Mecca)

After the treaty of huddaibiya, the Muslims faithfully observed its terms. But the meccan's

Quraish pagans later on broke the peace treaty on. A.D. 630 (A.H. 8) one of their allied tribes (the Banu Bakar) attacked the Muslim banu khuza'a. This tribe was in alliance with the prophet. This was the immediate cause to conquer Mecca. Fatherly, as a meccans, Prophet Mohammed looked forward to a time when the worship of Allah as sole God would be established there firmly. The power of the Muslims was this time consolidated, so, in the year of A.D.630 (A.H.8) the prophet of Allah set out to take Mecca, leading a large force of 10.000 men of his dedicated companions.

The prophet encamped his army near Mecca in the night. Abu sufyan who got out of Mecca to spy the Muslim strength was captured and brought to the prophet, but abu sufyan confessed Islam. The city surrendered soon. So, many people had been to Islam. The prophet promised protection to those who would not resist. He also affirmed that the ka'aba would be the centre of Muslim pilgrimage. 

Those points removed some of the motives of resistance. The prophet entered Mecca in triumph. He showed great tact and magnanimity. Thus, the defeated remained loyal to Islam. The honor which Mecca gained from its being the prophet's native city outweighed more than any remaining bitterness which surrender might have created. But even more important, the prophet had been remarkable for the loyalty he inspired and his persuasiveness with which he customarily dealt with his opponents. The prophet preferred to win men over than to crush their spirit by a simple display of force, as usually practiced by earthly leaders, upon his entry into Mecca, the prophet smashed 360 idols in the ka'aba, and swept away the pagan autocracy. 

 

                                    The prophet's death

In the last two years of his life, the prophet's forces began to move northward from the now largely unified Hijaz, the first moves were made in a series of campaigns and conquests which hit the Middle East and the Mediterranean world with explosive impact. The Islamic region which the prophet preaches in adversity and in success became fixed and organized. The prophet of Allah died. His achievements were not singular in his life time, but it had incalculable effects on the history of mankind from the seventh century on ward. Basic principles of Islam were simple and forceful. The prophet preached that there is but one God, Allah, and Muhammad, is his prophet. The prophet was the final of the prophets for in him God's revelations reached finality. Allah is omnipotent. Allah guides the faithful, and lead the wicked '' astray'' a matter of letting people lose their way. Nevertheless, it is ultimately the will of Allah which controls man's density. Allah destined men either to salvation or condemnation. The prophet taught on the oneness of God and on his majesty and power. His teachings also included the five pillars \of Islam the first duty of a Muslim is to profess whole heartedly that there is only one God and Muhammad is his prophet. A Muslim must state this belief openly and often the other three duties alms giving, fasting and pilgrimage to Mecca once in a person's life time. After the holy prophet (peace and blessing be upon him) and his companions gained control of Mecca and medina. Most of the tribes of Arabia submitted to the leadership of the prophet. When the prophet died in A.D.632 (A.HA.10) immediately. There was the problem of succession.

                                          Abu-bakar

The prophet's death was a crisis for Islam. Would the new allegiance hold together now that the prophet is no longer available? The prophet had nominated no successor. The fever that caused the prophets death had came on a too sudden. The Muslim community faced the possibility of disintegration. In A.D. 632 (A.H.10), influential Muslims the Muhajirin and Ansar gathered to chose a new caliph. Finally, a much trusted earlier companion, abu bakar, was selected to become the caliph. He had stood by the prophet's farther in law by later wife. Aisha.  Abu bakr ruled two years only before his died. Early in his reign, several tribes attempted to renounce Islam. Abu bakar his allies defeated them in battle, and repledged their loyalty, and submission to Allah. Abu bakar also sent armies to conquer new territory. He ordered the Muslim forces to raid frontier settlements in Byzantine and Sassanid territory. Muslim domination was carried forward to a line running roughly from southern Syria to the head of the Persian Gulf, but not including Palestine. This was in the two years between the prophet’s deaths A.D.632 (A.H. 12) and the caliph’s death A.D.634 (A.H. 12).

Abu bakar organized a military forced that look regions in Iraq. These forces were led by Khalid ibu al-walid and mutanna ibu al-harith. They conquered river Tigris, and which was the capital of the Arab kingdom of lakhmid in A.D.633 (A.H. 12). After that, Abu bakar sent armies that fought in Syria. In A.D.634 (A.H. 13), the roman armies were defeated at ajandain Abu bakar died on 23rd august 634(A.H. 13).

 

                                        Muslim expansion in his rule

Umer who led Muslims from A.D. 634 to 644m invaded Syria and Persia the Muslim attacks out of the desert surprised the already weakened Byzantine and Persian empires. In addition, the Muslims had a tactical advantage. They could quickly return to the desert where the heavily awkward Persian and Byzantine warriors could not pursue them. General Khalid ibu al-walid continued the campaign with startling success. In a lightning advance. They captured Damascus in A.D.635 (A.H. 14) from the Byzantines. The Muslim forces infleded catastrophic defeat on the Byzantines, under the emperor ………… in august A.D. 636 (A.H. 15), Muslims and Byzantine forces fought a decisive battle at the Yarmuk river, near the present day border of Iraq and Jordan. Byzantine army was forced to retreat. This battle took place during a scorching summer dust storm. Many retreating Byzantine army, blinded by sand, fell into a ravine, where they died. After this victory, the Muslim forces drove the remaining Byzantine armies out of Syria.

Mean while, in the east, Muslim forces advanced to Mesopotamia, present day Iraq, where they fought Persian forces. The Muslim forces won the major battle at Qadisiya, in lower Mesopotamia. It lies 21miles southwest of Hira. During the winter of 637 (A.H.16), Persian fought with elephants. However, they were defeated, after their army leader rustum, was killed. Within a year, the Muslims had seized the beautiful Persian capital Ctesiphon (al-mada'in).

In A.D.640 (A.H. 19), Muslim forces, under amar ibnu al-ass crossed the Sinai Peninsula and invaded the Nile valley. The Byzantine emperor evacuated the great port city of Alexandria, refusing to fight at all and in A.D.642 (A.H. 21), amr entered Egypt triumphantly.

                               Umer's home policy   

When the Islamic territory expanded further, umer established a systematic administration for the Islamic government. He divided the land into provinces, assigning each to a governor. Secondly, umer created the first Islamic treasury house with its banking system. Like wise he introduced the office for collecting government tariff, and its controlling. Sayid umer the caliph of the faithful governed the Islamic communities equally before the law of God, in justice, and without taking sides. He was the first to use the Islamic calendar that started after the hijra of the prophet. Umer's fifth step was his establishment of the post and communication office.

Caliph Umer was killed while he was praying, by a man called abu lu'lu'an al-majusi, who used a poisoned dagger in Nov. 644 (A.H.23).

                            Othman ibnu affan

Before his death, sayid umer nominated a committee of six companions to select among them the khalifa of the faithful Muslims. They were: Ali ibnu abi talib, uthman binu affan subeir ibu al-awam, sa'ad binu abi waqqas, talha ibnu ubaidllah, and Abdurrahman ibnu awf. This committee selected uthman to be successor. Sayyid uthman was sociable, and a well respected companion. That is why he represented the Muslims in the treaty of juddaibiya with the pagan quraish. He was wealthy and pious.

           

                        Muslim conquests in his time

The third khalifa, whose rule lasted from A.D.645 to 656, continued the incredible series of conquest. The Persian Empire, despite quite effective resistance, crumbled beneath the swift-moving Muslim armies. The Muslim armies were sent both east and west. They completed the conquest of most of Persia and advanced as far as the abu darya (Oxus) river, near the frontiers of Turkistan. Turkistan lies northeast of Iran, and before 1990 it was part of the Soviet Union. Muslim forces advanced far up the Nile valley. They crossed the Libyan Desert to attack the Byzantine province of Africa Present-day Tunisia. However, rapid military expansion strained Muslim unity. In June, A.D.656, a band of Muslim rebels from Egypt assassinated caliph uthman in his house while he was reciting the holy quran. Then, he was 82 years old.

                     Ali Abi Talin four caliphs (A.D. 556-5560)

After assassination of ………..  , the people assembled at the mosque in medina, discussing about the caliphate, and finally chose Ali ibu talib to be the caliph of the faithful. Then m the assembled people swore allegiance to him. Also, talha and zubair did the same, except incitingly asking the blood compensation of sayid uthman ibu affan. However, the banu umaya refused to accept Ali's caliphate. Sayid Ali advised those who asked uthman's blood to wait until things become smooth and assassins brought to justice. But, banu Umayya were not to give chance, adding the situation more tense and conflict more wider between them and the caliph. Soon, this evolved into an armed confrontation that reached its climax in the battle of the ''camel'' near Basra.

                      The battle of the camel

The mother of the faithful, a'isha sided mu'awiyya and led the fight against Ali. In the battle, she mounted on a camel, urging her party to kill Ali. Even though, sayid Ali attempted to settle the conflict in vain, the battle broke out, and ended in Ali's victory. Unfortunately, zubair and talha were killed, after they had retreated from the fighting. They were killed by a saba'ian faction in Caliph Ali's army. This evil assassination upset Ali much. Caliph Ali took a'isha bintu abu bakar to medina, under the guardianship of Abdullah ibu zabair, the son of her sister, respectfully. After this battle, Ali's rule was strengthened in all provinces but Syria (sham), where mu'awiya decided to oppose him. His excuse was that the assassins of uthman were not yet arrested.

                              The battle of saffain

After the battle of camel, Ali sent for mu'awiya, calling upon him to join the whole community of Islam, fatherly, indicating what was the consequences of those who came against his rule. Then, amar ibu al-as pointed to mu'awiya to stand in strong position in asking Ali the blood compensation of sayid  uthman and prepare and army from Syria to fight him. So, the caliph had no choice except going out to meet the force of mu'awiya. Ultimately, the two armies confronted in the plain of saffain on the Euphrates River. Therefore, they interchanged messages of negotiations to unify their world. When negotiations failed, battle broke out. Umayyads sensed defeat when amr. Once more pointed out to the fighters to put their holy books on their spear points, as a show of reconciliation between them, according to the book of Allah.

Fighting stopped between the two sides and reconciliation took place without a satisfactory settlement.

          The battle of nahrawan and the emergence of the khawarij

While Ali was on his way back from the battle to kufa, in which he made his capital certain faction of his army asked him to re-start the fighting because, They said, they were shelled in accepting the reconciliation, for there was no authority except for the true God. Caliph Ali could not accept. As a result, they went out of his force; hence, they were called the khawarij. This faction declared war against caliph Ali, as well as mu'awiya $amr. The khwarij faction declared their opposition and war on people. Indeed, sayyid Ali tried hard to show them the righteous way, but they rejected. It was inevitable to fight them, in the battle of nahrawan, in which the khwarij faction was defeated.

                                        Ali's assassination         

 The danger form the khwarij faction was not ended yet in the battle of nahrawan. While sayyid Ali was preparing himself to undergo a second campaign with mu'awiya. The khwarij faction was busy on plotting to kill all the three of Caliph Ali, mu'awiya and amr. But, fate destined Caliph Ali, only, to become the martyr of that fitna. While he was going out of the mosque in kufa, Ali was killed by abdal-rahman ibnu muljam, a member of the khawarij faction on 17th Ramadan 40A.H. (A.D.660).

Ali's martyrdom, the period of the caliphs with the righteous guidance ended, and a news era began.

                            Problems of the Muslim empire

Rapid military expansions strained Muslim unity. Old feuds between Arabian Muslim tribe's surfaces. Opposing political faction's compelled for the office of caliph. In A.D.565 a band of Muslim rebels from Egypt assassinated caliph uthman, as indicated in the previous lessons. For five years. During the imam ship of saysid Ali ibu talib civil war raged among Muslim parties. It was mainly between sayid Ali and mu'awiya ibu abisufyan, as we have seen too.

           The Umayyad caliphate, A.H. (A.D. 661-759)

Through conquests the Arabs gained the heavily populated farmlands extending from the Nile River to the Amu Darya River. Under Arab rule, Egypt and the Middle East united for the first time since the days of the Roman Empire. The Muslims needed a system to govern their newly acquired empire. The prophet (peace be upon him) had laid the foundations of a new kind of political organization based on common allegiance to Allah and his laws. By following Islam, Muslims could govern such a huge empire with millions of people of different cultures. To govern their lands, however, the Umayyads set up a hereditary ruler. The main responsibility of the caliph was mainly of two points:

v     To defend the Islamic community and the law of God. In reality, however, mu'awiya who successfully claimed the caliphate, established the Umayyad dynasty. The office of caliph then passed from father to son, or to some other descendent in a single family.

v     The Umayyad caliphs adopted Byzantine and assassin customs. Mu'awiyya moved the capital from medina to Damascus, the heart of the new Islamic empire. He and his successors also, continued the government bureaucracy the empires had developed. The Umayyads even used Byzantine coins engraved with pictures of the Greek emperors.

In cities through the Umayyad lands, may people converted to Islam. as a result, the new rulers built mosques Muslims face Mecca when they pray. The most important element of a mosque is the mihrab, an alcove showing the direction of Mecca. Mosques usually were built so that the greatest number of worshippers could pray in them.

                            Later Arab conquests A.H.650-750)

To increase the revenue the Umayyad, caliphs began a second series of conquests, they wanted to expand their territories, and thus expand their tax base, they also, wanted to keep independent, Arabs from rebelling against the central government, the caliphs, therefore, sent their armies on news adventures of conquest for Islam.

                         Conquest to the west, A.H. (A.D. 670)

West of Egypt lies North Africa, currently occupied by the states of Tunisia, Algeria, and morocco. The Arabs called this region the Maghreb, meaning land to the west, the Byzantine emperor still held coastal areas and the major port towns of North Africa. The people living in North Africa, called Berbers were divided into two groups. One group lived in the towns, and made their living as merchants, artisans, and workers. Many were Christians. The majority of Berbers inhabited the interior plans and mountains, and farmed or herded sheep or camels, belonging to numerous tribes, the Berbers paid little attention to the Byzantine governors in the towns.

In A.H. (A.D.670), Muslim forces began their conquest of North Africa. The coastal cities, the Byzantines held were strongly fortified, and the Berber tribes resisted the Muslim Arabs. Muslim armies fought in North Africa over several decades before finally gaining control of the land. By the end of the seventh century, Muslims had added all of the Maghreb, except the interior mountains, and desert regions, to the Muslim empire. Christianity gradually lost influence, and Islam replaced it, culturally, the Mediterranean basin was split between Christians in the north and Muslims in the east and south. A Christian minority remained in Egypt under the Coptic Church, Jewish minority communities also, continued to thrive and made important cultural and economic contributions. The Umayyads intended to destroy the Byzantine Empire. To do so, however, they had to capture the great fortress capital of Constantinople. In the 670s. And again betwe4en A.D. 717 and 718, Arab army and navy units laid siege to the city, Christian forces beat them back both times. The secret weapon of the Byzantines was the ''Greek fire''. This highly flammable chemical mixture was shot from bronze tubes that could be mounted on ships or the walls of a city. The mixture began to burn when it hit the enemy, causing servers damages.

 

                               Conquests of the east

To the east, Muslim armies pushed through Persia to the lower valley of the Indus River, they found northern India divided into small Hindu states that were UN able to resist the Muslim forces. The Muslim forces conquered the lower Indus valley and introduced Islam to the region.

                                  Muslim forces defeat the Chinese

Further to the east, the Muslim forces reached the frontiers of the Chinese empire. The sue dynasty had united the Chinese in A.D.690 and ruled until A.D.618. The next dynasty, the further strengthened Chinese unity. One of the great achievements of the tang rules was to advance Chinese military power westward to the grasslands of Turkistan; this expansion gave the tang control of the rich trade in luxury good along the silk goad. Early in the 13th century, Muslim forces crossed the Syria Darya River into Turkistan. Here, they seized the rich commercial cities of the Silk Road. See the map, spread of Islam, page ……………..in A.D.751 the Muslims fought a great battle against the Chinese army. The Muslim victory forced the tang to withdraw from the region.

Introduced into Turkistan, Islam gradually replaced Buddhism as the dominant faith. Even though the tang army retreated eastward, trade between the Islamic land and china increased over the next 200 years.

                                    The Arabs invade Europe

During the lifetime of the holy prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), Europe west of the Byzantine Empire was still divided into a number of states ruled by Germanic tribes. The chieftains of these states were generally hostile toward the original inhabitants. The years between A.D.500 and 1000 often are called the dark ages, because the Germans cared little about trade, town life, or civilization. Learning and literacy thrived only in the Christian monasteries. As the Arabs conquered North Africa, their forces moved west until they arrived at the strait of Gibraltar. Less that 20miles wide the strait separates the Iberian Peninsula from Africa. The countries of Spain and Portugal now occupy the Iberian Peninsula. In A.D. 711, Muslim forces crossed the strait and entered Spain. The Muslims rapidly conquered most of Iberian which became part of Umayyad caliphate. North of Spain, the kingdom of the franks developed. When the Arabs took place near tours, in the central part of France. The battle of tours did not destroy the Muslim empire. It did mark the end of Muslim expansion into Western Europe. The Muslims strengthened their hold on Iberia. This area became an important Islamic centre and continued to be for many years.

                            The fall of the Umayyad empire

At its height, the Umayyad empire extended across more than half of the eastern hemisphere. The empire, however, had numerous problems. The most serious difficulty was the dominance of small groups of Arab families. These influential families recriminated against poorer Muslim Arabs and non Arab Muslims, as well as unbelievers. Many converts to Islam wanted more control over the government. These discontent Muslims argued that the holy prophet, Muhammad had founded a social community in which all believers would live together as equals under God's law.

                               Shi'ites and Sunnis

Many opponents of the Umayyad family were supporters of the caliph Ali, who had been assassinated in A.D.661 (A.H. 661). They believed that the Umayyad family had stolen the office of caliph, which rightly belonged to the descendants of Muhammad (pbh). Sayid Ali was the prophet's cousin and the husband o Fatima, the prophet's daughter. After sayid Ali was killed, rebellious rallied around his son Hussein; these opponents of the Umayyads were called shi'a or shi'ites. In A.D. 680, an Umayyad army defeated Hussein and his followers. Sayid Hussein was killed and his head cut off. The murder of the prophet's grandson shocked many Muslims. Thereafter, thi'ism developed into a sect within Islam teaching that a descendant of Hussein would one day come to rule. Religiously, shi'ites stood in opposition to the majority of Muslims, called Sunnis, the Sunnis accepted the legitimacy of the Umayyad caliphs. Sunni Muslims historically believed that the rightful caliph was the leader the community of believers accepted. They rejected the idea that the office belonged differences between the sonnies and shi'ites were not great. Today, most of the citizens of Iran, formerly Persian are shi'ites Muslims. Large communities of shi'ites also live in Lebanon, Iraq, and other countries. Finally, in A.D. 747 (A.H.) a major revolt broke out under the leadership of Abu al-abbas, a descendant of the prophet's uncle, abbas. The Umayyads were completely defeated and Abbasids gained control of the caliphate. Despite the grave crisis and a change of power at the top, Islam continued to gain new converts.

 

                                      The Abbasid caliphate

Changen for Islamic civilization

Between A.D. 750and 1000 trade and communication across the eastern hemisphere increased dramatically. Two important developments stimulated this growth. First the Abbasid caliphate came to power in A.D.750. The Abbasid rulers organized a powerful and wealthy empire that dominated the Middle East. As people of the Abbasid lands prospered, they increased the demand for luxury products from India and china. The second development that stimulated exchanges in the eastern hemisphere was the unification of china under the tang dynasty in A.D.618. Like the Abbasids, the early tang emperors encouraged agriculture, communication and overseas trade.

 

                                      The rise of the Abbasid caliphate

In A.H. (A.D. 750), the Umayyad caliphate was overthrown in a civil war. A new dynasty, the Abbasids, replaced the Umayyads. Al-abbas assfah. He was a descendant of abbas, the uncle of the holy prophet (PBH). Most of the Abbasid supporters lived in Mesopotamia and Persia. The news rulers, therefore, moved their capital from Damascus in Syria to Baghdad on the banks of the Tigris River. They built magnificent places, mosques, and bazaars, or market places. The move from Damascus to Baghdad increased the wealth and power of the Abbasids for two reasons. First, Baghdad lay in the heart of Mesopotamia, one of the richest agricultural areas in the world; the early Abbasid caliphs improved and expanded the irrigation canals of the Tigris and Euphrates valley. As agricultural production increased, the Abbasids used their increased tax revenue to increase government and army, as the caliphs became wealthier, they strengthened their empire's government. Second the location of Baghdad, at the crossroads of two ancient trade routes increased Abbasid power. One trade route extended from the Mediterranean sea to the Persian gulf and then by sea ways to India and china. The second route crossed overland through the Middle East to central Asia and china. Baghdad developed into a center of world trade. The merchants filled the markets of Baghdad with spices, textiles, perfumes, and other luxury goods from Asia.    

                                               Government under the Abbasids

The Abbasid caliphs adopted many aspects of Persian government. They did not live simple lived as had the prophet Mohammed and other early leaders of Islam. Instead, they kept themselves isolated from the common people. They imitated the Persian rulers by dressing in beautiful silk robes and tall cone-shaped hats. They became absolute rulers. Devout Muslims to the believed in the equality of all people resented the behavior and grand style of the caliphs. Still, most Muslims realized that the huge Islamic empire could not be ruled by the simple governmental style of prophet Mohammed's time.

                                             Trade and communication increase

During the eighth century, both the Islamic and Chinese empires encouraged trade. Long-distance caravan trade over Silk Road flourished again for the first time since the A.D. 200s. Changing, the capital of china under tang, attracted thousands of merchants form middle east and central Asia, some were christens and Jews. Many were Muslims form Syria and Persia. At the same time, Arab and Persian sailors from the Middle East made regular ocean voyages to India, Southeast Asia and china. Muslim sailors could travel from the Persian Gulf to china and return in about a year and a half. The long trip, however, was both dangerous and uncomfortable, their ships did not have enclosed cabins, and crew members cooked and slept under the sun and stars. Along the way, typhoons threatened in the Indian Ocean. Muslim merchants helped to spread the ideas and customs of Islamic civilization. Some settled down in port towns in India, Ceylon (Sri lank), and other places along the route. In this way, merchants introduced Islam to the Indian Ocean region.

                                                     

                               Abbasid trade in west

In the eighth century, Muslim merchants began to trade tin the lands around the Mediterranean Sea. They used the lateen, a triangular-shaped sail which gave ships greater mobility than did the traditional square sails. Using the lateen, captains could move e their ships in and out of ports more easily and make head-way even when the wind was not lowing form behind the ship. The merchants of Baghdad were largely interested in profitable luxury good form India and china. But they also carried trade with Europe. Muslims imported furs, honey, timber, and slaves form Europe. Archaeologists have found Abbasid gold coins as far north as present day Finland and Sweden. (See the map, trade in Abbasid lands, page…………….).

                        Trade with sub-Saharan Africa

After the Arabs conquered both Africa, Muslim merchants organized tradition expeditions across the vast Sahara to the gold fields of West Africa. The dromedary camel became their ship of the desert. The camel, introduced form Arabia to Africa in roman times, made possible regular trader across the Sahara. After the eighth century trade increased between the Mediterranean coasts and lands of West Africa south of the Sahara. The African commerce encouraged the growth of several West African kingdoms. (See unit……………) Muslim merchants settled in the little training towns near the southern edge of the Sahara. There, Muslims built mosques and began schools for their children, soon, some local African merchants converted to Islam. In this way, Islam gradually became an important religion in West Africa. By A.D.1000. w. Africa profited from its link to the interacting zone of Islamic trade.

                                      Arab scientific and cultural achievements

A united middle east under Islam stimulated an exchange of ideas, as well as trade. Early Muslim scholars learned form the older Greek and Persian civilizations. New ideas about technology and science entered Baghdad, along with the silks and spices, because of the strong trade links to India and china, Arab and Persian scientists stretched their understanding of mathematics, astronomy natural science, medicine, chemistry and geography during the Abbasid period. Ma'munm who ruled from A.D. 813to 833, was one of the greatest of the Abbasid period. He founded a house of wisdom in Baghdad about .D.815. It included an enormous library and an astronomical observatory for studying the heavens. Abbasid scholars adopted the Indian system of mathematics based on ten and the concept of zero, the most famous Abbasid mathematician, al Khwarizmi, mathematical integration, gives us the word algebra. One of the giants of Abbasid science was the Persian scholar ibu sin, also called Avicenna inbu sina was born in .D.980 near Bukhara in central Asia. In this life time, he wrote 99 books on astronomy, geometry, theology, philosophy, and art, he combined his own medical ideas with those of the Greeks and Persian. Centuries after his death Avicenna's encyclopedia of medicine became the basis of medical practice throughout Europe. In it he describes the symptoms and spread of many serious diseases and lists 760 deferent drugs began the Muslim. The Muslim world produced many scholars who explored many interests. The genius, Avicenna, was a physician, philosopher, mathematician, and theologian, as well as an astronomer.  

                                     Industry and technology

In addition to achievements in the sciences, the Muslim also advanced in technology. Baghdad and other cities of the caliphate were busy centers of industry. Their workshops produced beautiful pottery, fabrics, rugs, metalwork, glass, and jewelry, artisans used ideas and techniques form china and India to improve their products. Muslim Arabs adapted the technology of papermaking. In A.D.751, when the Muslims defeated a tang army, in central Asia, they captured some Chinese artisans skilled at making paper, these Chinese prisoners set up a paper skill in the Middle East. Over time the skills of paper making spread form the Middle East to North Africa and Europe. Paper had several advantages over parchment, the traditional writing material, paper was much cheaper and faster to make. Therefore, books became cheaper and easier to make, since owning books became more common , knowledge spread throughout the eastern hemisphere faster and reached more people than ever before.

                              Philosophy

 Between the eighth and tenth centuries, Muslims, Christian, and Jewish scholars translated most of the surviving books of ancient Greek philosophy into Arabic the shi'ite branch of Islam was specially interested in Greek philosophy, a great debate arose about natural law. Some leaders disagreed with the Greek idea of natural law that used definite rulers of cause and effect to explain natural events. These laws explained the rotation of the planets and other natural events. Critics of the Greek idea of a natural law preferred to believe that God is directly responsible for every individual action and every event that occurs. By the eleventh century, the Muslim opponents of Greek philosophy had gained influence. The majority of Muslim scholars decided that Greek ideas would not be taught in the schools of Islamic lands. Islamic civilization, therefore, did not adopt much of the Greek tradition in philosophy, even through the Islamic scholars had translated the Greek writings into Arabic.

 

fadlan halkan waxaad kala socon kartaa geographyga inta maanta la idiinku tala galay.
waakane  gudoon wacan:

                              Geography

      

                                             Earth in space  

The universe is infinite and limits less.

 In distance, it cannot be measured with either amole or a kilometer the distance in space is measured in light year.

Which is the distance that light travels in one year, the nearest star other than the sun called proxima or alpha centouri is 4.2 light year away from us.

Radio wave signals and light travels 300,000 km/sec so one light year can be found by 300,000 km*60sec

 

Light from the sun reaches on the earth’s surface with eight second in the universe there are millions of groups of stars connected by gravitational force and these are called gallaxys.

The galaxy in which the earth is found known as the Milky Way, and nearest gallaxy has the shape of advice and composes of two spiraling arm

 

                        

                                   The solar system

 

      The solar system consist of the following components

1.   The sun which lies at the cent ore

2.   The line major planets

3.   Satellites or moons

4.   Asteroids or minor planets

5.   Meteors and meteorites

6.   Comets

7.   Dust and gases

The solar system means the sun system because most of the above  members revolve around it.

                                The major planets

 

In order from the sun major planet sure

Mercury, venues, earth, mars, Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto

Six of these can be seen with the naked eye in a clear night sky.

All of them revolve around the sun and their periods of revolution is determine by the distance form which its orbits is the sun

E.g., mercury is next to the sun it completes one revolution with in 88days

And this is four times shorter than that of the earth 3651/4 days.

Jupiter is the largest of all, and the Saturn Uranus, Neptune, earth following it mercury and become evening and morning star according to their direction from the sun (west morning and east evening) with the exception of mercury and

 

venues all other planets here moons or satellites that spin around the planets

E.g. earth has one mars two Jupiter 14  

The sun and other celestial bodies the sun is the greatest member of all the solar system and it comprises 99% of the system and it has diameter of about 1.4.6.11.on kilometers the sun gives off heat and light of it’s own which comes from internal thermo-nuclear reaction of helium (He) and hydrogen (H) gas

All other cell stail bodies do not give off light of their own but do reflect the light from the sun except the stars as the sun.

Asteroids: - are rocky masses that revolve around the sun and move slowly between the orbits of mars and Jupiter

Meteors: - are ting rocky fragments which come into the earth atmosphere and begging to move faster and faster due to the gravitation pull of.

The earth then they barn in air by the friction with one (o3 ) gas and become what we call the shooting stars meteorites are larger particles which reach on the earth’s surface before they completely barn the most common comets called the Halley’s comet that visit the earth Nan inter Val of about 78years and it’s last time seen was in 1986

 

 

                                The moon and phases

The moon is the earth's only natural satellite that spin around it and it takes to complete one revolution (luner month) about 273 days the moon reflect the light form the sun and half of it is always illuminated to from its different shapes called phases the period between the waxing crescent and the full moon is called waxing because it is growing and that between the full moon and the waning crescent is called waning

When half of the moon is seen from the earth in the first week is called the first quarter and when in the last week a half illuminate is called the last quarter

 

gibbous             full moon

   gibbous

 

 

 


first quarter

 

 

waxing crescent
last quarter

                             new moon

 

 

      

                  

       Eclipses of the sun and the moon

 

Some times we see that the moon get darken and the sun as well and this darkening is called an eclipse the revolution of the moon around the earth’s responsible for that eclipses which occur in case of the moon.

When the earth come between the sun and the moon and usually it takes place ar full moon the sun eclipse (solar system) takes place when the moon come between the earth and the sun usually at new moons both lunar and solar eclopse last not more than few hours in other words the lunar eclipse is that the earth cast it’s shadow on the moons surface  

 

 

                              Th shape and size of the earth

The shape of the earth is called a geiod and it is not actually atrue  sphere

Is an ablate the earth is bulging at the equator and falttening at the can prove the circular shape of earth.

 

1.    areal photographs recently taken by the artificial satellite 

 2.   the sunset and the sunrise because all places on earth’s surface would see   or get the the sun’s rays at once or at the same time it the earth was falt 

3.    The lunar and solar eclipse means that the earth cast its acicular shadow on the moon as any other spherical body

4.     The earth is curved horizon because as you go up to higher altitudes the circular horizon gets smaller and smaller and become spherical in shape  

 

 

  

 Equater  00                              

 

               36

 

 

 

 

 


                                                                                       

 

 

 

 

 

      

 

                      Distribution of land and sea 

 

Over 70%of the earth’s surface is water and this is not even the same for the northern hemispheres as much as 80% of the total surface of the southern hemispheres is covered by water in other words the total surface area of the earth is 510 million square kilometers and 146million km2 of this covered by land masses (1c-30%) the land divides into 7 continents and they are

Africa, Asia, Europe, South America, North America, Australia and

Antarctic

And there are five large water bodies called oceans several smaller ones called sees.

Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, arctic, and southern ocean  

  

 

 

  • Both latitudes and longitudes are imagivery lines that run on earth surface from west to east and from pole to pole respectively they are used for different geography putposos such as:-

1.         it to locate a place ro a point on earth or the map

2.        for classifying climalic and regetational distribution

3.        for the fixation of the international time and date

 

                       Latitudes

The lines of latitudes are also called the parallels and they are 180 lines in number.

And are divided by the equator which is they only great circle parallels refer the angular distance of a point of a place on the earth from the equator in relation to the centre or axis of the earth so they are measured in degrees (0) and (900 )

Or lines are north of the equator and the other ninety degrees are south the circles of the latitudes got smaller and smaller pole words they are some important parallels which in valve the identification.

 

1.   equator-volve of zero-(0)

2.    tropic of cancer –231/20n

3.    tropic of capricon-231/20s

4.      arctic circle- 661/2 0n

5.     antarctic circle -661/20s

 

at the equator the distance between each two consecutive parallerls is 111 kilometres

             

           

                                                                                             

 

 

 

                          Longitudes

The lines of logitudes are also called the meridians and they are different from the latitudes because of that

v     They are all not parallal because they meet or touch each other at the poles

v     They are all great circles and each of them divides the earth into two equal parts,( eartern and western hemispheres )

v     They are 3600 lines number they refer to the angular distance of a point or place on earth is from the Greenwich in relation to the axis of the easrth since longitudes are all the same the greenwich is selected to be the central one and it has been given to a valve of (00)

The Greenwich passes on Accra china in West Africa France and the Greenwich observatory centre in london

 

 

                                                                                                         

 

 

           Colculating time with meridians

To avoid confusion the world has been divided into 24 belts of 150 wide each and these belts are called time zones.

Each time zone has one local time, which is expressed by the local time of the control meredian and so it’s the standard time of that zone.

Also there is one standard time for the whole globle and it’s the time expressed by the local time of the greenwich and this timeis called (GMT)

Greanwich means time.

All meridians lying east of the greenwich are a head of gmt because the get the sun’s rays before the greenwich.

Similarly all the meridians lying  on the west of it are behind the gmt because the receive the sun after so now let us calculate.

 

                         International date line

The line that a day is galned and day is lost called the international date line passes on 1800 meridians on the water bodies but it tuns away from land masses and islands in order to avoid onfution.

  

 

                Move ments of the earth

 

The earth spin or revolves around the sun and this is called a revolution.

Also it rotates on it’s axis and this is called rotation.

Third the earth tilt 231/20 from it’s axis and this results the changes(1n) seasons.

 

                                       Rotation of the earth

The earth compelete one rotation with in 23 hours and 56 minutes and this result on.

v     The day and night

v     Deflection of winds and currents

 

                             Revolution of the earth

The earth complete one revolution about 3651/4 days in which revolves around the sun this result that earth give one of it’s two poles to the sun once in every 11 month and this time is over head either the tropic of canter  (june22) or tropic of Capricorn (december23) the time that sun crosses over equator is called     equinox.

 Therefore, there are spring equinox (march21) and autumnal equinox  (september 23)  at the two equinox the langht of day and nigt are eqyual on every parallal bu if the sun is over head cancer the sout hemisphere is in cool

(winter) season where as the northern hemisphere is in the hot( summer) season similarly when sun is over head the capricon the day length increases towards the southern pole and the night lengh increase in the northern hemisphere where there is the cool ( winter season)

 

 

                                                      Atmosphere

The atmosphere is an envolope or a blanket of air that surround the earth.

It consist of different gases dust partials and water rapour.

All of these components nitrogen is the mast abundant (78%) and oxygen is the second in abundant (21%) and remaining 1% contain all the rest such as organ, neon, helium, carbon dioxide, rap our and hydrogen troposphere stratosphere mesosphere and exosphere all the four layers of the atom atmosphere in order of on the earth.

All weather elements such as wind strom clouds rain are found and

 

 

 

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